RECOMMENDED TEXT FOR B.Sc. SYLLABUS OF PHYSICS IS GENERALLY by David Halliday, ROBERT RESNICK / KENNETH S.KRANE, Publishers John Wiley and Sons, 4TH EDITION (ISBN 0-471-80457-6)
Note: The Paper A, B, & C are Subjective and Paper D & E are of Practical. The each Subjective paper is of 50 marks and Paper D & E are of 25 marks each. The Papers are further subdivided into sections
CURRICULUM FOR B.Sc. (PHYSICS)
PAPER: A 50 Marks
|Vector in 3 dimensions||Introduction; Direction Cosines; Spherical polar coordinates;
|Vector derivatives and operations||Divergence and curl of a vector, and gradient of a scalar.|
|Gradient, Divergence and Curl of a Vector||Physical application of each type; Divergence and Flux of a
vector field, curl and line integral (mutual relation)
|Divergence Theorem, Stokes’ Theorem||Derivation, physical importance and applications to specific
cases. Converting from differential to integral forms
Reference Book: FIELD AND WAVE ELECTROMAGNETICS (Second Edition) by David K. Cheng, Addison-Wesley Series in Electrical Engineering (ISBN 0-201-52820)
|(Advanced applications of Newton’s laws) Dynamics of Uniform motion||Frictional forces: microscopic basis of this force Conical pendulum; the rotor, circular the banked curve.|
|Equations of motion.||Deriving kinematics equations X(V), v(t) using integrations. Constant and Non constant Forces and special examples.|
|Time dependent forces||Obtaining x(t), v(t) for this case using integration method|
|Effect of drag forces on motion||Applying Newton’s Laws to obtain v(t) for the case of motion with time dependent drag(viscous) forces; terminal velocity. Projectile motion/ air resistance.|
|Non inertial frames and Pseudo forces||Qualitative discussion to develop understanding. Calculation of pseudo forces for simple cases ( linearly accelerated references frame). Centrifugal force as an example of pseudo force; Carioles force.|
|Limitations of Newton’s Laws.||Discussion.|
|Suggested level||Ch: 6: Resnick , Halliday and Krane(R.H.K)|
WORK AND ENERGY
|Work done by a constant force, work done by a variable force(1-dimension).||(Essentially a review of grade-XII Concepts use of integration technique to calculate work done (e.g. in vibration of a spring obeying Hooks Law)|
|Work done by a variable(2-dimensional case)||Obtaining general expression force and applying to simple cases e.g. pulling a mass at the end of a fixed string against gravity.|
|Work energy theorem. General proof Of work energy theorem.||Qualitative Review of work energy|
|Power||Theorem. Derivation using integral calculus. Basic formula and applications.|
|Reference Frames||Energy changes with respect to observers in different inertial frames.|
|Suggested Level:||Ch. 7 of R.H.K.|
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
|Conservative, and non Conservative forces||Definition of either type of force & examples; work done in a closed path.
1-D conservative system; force as the gradient of potential energy; applications to the case a spring and force of gravity.
|One dimensional conservative system||Obtaining velocity in terms of U and E ; stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium. Analytic solution for x(t).|
|2, 3 dimensional conservative systems||Change in P.E. for motion in 3-d force. Force as the gradient of the potentials. Work done in 2, 3 dimensional motion.|
|Conservation of energy in a system of particles||Law of conservation of total energy of an isolated system|
|Suggested Level:||Ch.8 of H.R.K.|
SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
|Two particle system and Generalization to many particle systems.||Centre of mass: Its position velocity and equation of motion|
|Centre of mass of solid objects||Calculation of center of mass of solid objects using integral calculus.
Calculating C.M. of,
I. Uniform Rod.
|Momentum Changes in a system of variable mass.||Derivation of basic equation; application to motion of a rocket (determination of its mass as a function of time).|
|Suggested level….||Ch.9 of H.R.K.|
|Elastic Collisions||(a) one dimensions.|
|Conservation of momentum during Collision.||(b) Two dimensions (Oblique Collisions)|
|Inelastic collision||One and two dimensions|
|Collisions in centre of Mass reference frame||Simple applications: obtaining Velocities in c.m. frame.|
|Suggested Level||Ch.: 10 of H.R.K.|
|Overview of rotational Dynamics||Relationships between linear & angular variables; scalar and vector form.
Kinetic energy of rotation; Moment of Inertia.
|Parallel axis theorem||Prove and Illustrate; apply to simple cases|
|Determination of moment of inertice of various shapes. Rotational dynamics of rigid bodies.||Equations of rotational motion and effects of application of torques.|
|Combined rotational and transnational motion||Rolling without slipping|
|Suggested Levels||Ch. 12 of H.R.K|
|Angular Velocity||Definition, Conservation of angular momentum, effects of Torque|
|Stability of spinning objects||Discussion with examples.|
|The spinning Top||Effects of torque on the angular momentum, precessional motion.|
|Suggested Level||Ch 13 H.R.K|
|Review of basic concepts of gravitation. Gravitational effect of a spherical mass distribution||Mathematical treatment|
|Gravitational Potential Energy||Develop using integration techniques; calculation of escape velocity|
|Gravitational field & potential||Develop the idea of field of force|
|Universal Gravitational Law||Motion of Planets and Keplers laws. (Derivation & explanation) Motion of satellites. Energy considerations in planetary and satellite motion. Qualitative discussion on application of gravitational law to the Galaxy.|
|Suggested Levels||Ch 16 of H.R.K|
|BULK PROPERTIES OF MATTERS|
|Elastic Properties of Matter||Physical basic of elasticity Tension, compression & Shearing
Elastic Modulus; Elastic limit
|Suggested Level||Ch 14 H.R.K|
|Fluid Statics||Variation of Pressure in fluid at rest and with height in the atmosphere.|
|Surface Tension||Physical basis; role in formation of drops and bubbles|
|Suggested Level||Ch 17 H.R.K|
|Fluid Dynamics||General concepts of fluid flow, streamline and the equation of continuity|
|Bernoulli’s Equation||Derivation and some applications such as dynamic lift thrust on a rocket|
|Viscosity||Physical basis; obtaining the coefficient of viscosity, practical example of viscosity; fluid flow (Poisenille’s law)|
|Suggested Level||Ch 18 R.H.K|
|SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY|
|Trouble with classical Mechanics||Qualitative discussion of inadequacy or paradoxes in classical ideas of time, length and velocity.|
|Postulates of Relativity||Statements and Discussion|
|The Lorentz Transformation inverse transformation||Derivation, Assumptions on which derived application of the same Transformation of velocities.|
|Consequences of Lorentz transformation||Relativity of time, relativity of length|
|Relativistic energy||Derive E=mc2|
|Suggested level||Partially covered by Ch: 21 of H.R.K|
WAVES AND OSCILLATIONS
|Simple harmonic oscillation (SHM)||Obtaining and solving the basic equation of motion x(t), v(t), a(t). Energy considerations in SHM|
|Application of SHM||Torsional Oscillators; Physical pendulum,
|SHM and uniform circular motion
|Combinations of Harmonic motion.|
|Damped Harmonic Motion||Equation of damped harmonic motion,
Discussion of its solution.
|Forced Oscillations and resonances||Equation of forced oscillation, discussion of its solution. Examples of resonances.|
|Suggested level||Ch.:15 of H.R.K|
|Mechanical waves Travelling waves||Phase velocity of traveling waves; Sinusoidal waves; group speed and dispersion.|
|Waves speed||Mechanical analysis|
|Wave equation.||Discussion of solution.|
|Power and intensity in wave motion.||Derivation and discussion|
|Principle of superposition (basic ideas).||Interference of waves, standing waves. Phase changes on reflection; Natural frequency, resonance.|
|Suggested level||Ch.: 19 of H. R. K.|
|Beats Phenomenon||Analytical treatment|
|Doppler Effect||Moving source, moving observer, both object and source moving.|
|Suggested level||Ch.: 20 of H. R. K.|
|Nature of light||Visible light (Physical characteristics)|
|Light as an Electro-magnetic wave||Speed of light in matter: physical aspect path difference, phase difference etc.|
|Suggested level||Ch : 42 H. R. K.|
|Adding of Electromagnetic waves using phasors.||Coherence of sources; Double slit interference, analytical treatment.|
|Interference from thin films Michelson Interferometer||Newton’s rings (analytical treatment).
(Discussion to include use of a compensating plate; Michelson interferometer use in determining velocity of light.)
|Fresenel’s Biprism and its use.|
|Suggested level||Ch : 45 H. R. K.|
|Diffraction||Difference at single slit; Intensity in single slit diffraction using phasor treatment and analytical treatment using addition of waves. Slit interference & diffraction combined. Diffraction at a circular aperture|
|Diffraction from multiple slits||Discussion to include with of the maxima.|
|Diffraction grating.||Discussion, use in spectrographs. Dispersion and resolving power of gratings.|
|Suggested level||Ch : 46, 47 H. R. K.|
|Polarization||Basic definition, production of polarization by polarizing sheets, by reflection, by double refraction and double scattering.|
|Description of polarization states||Linear, Circular, elliptic polarization|
|Rotation of plane of polarization||Use of Polarimeter.|
|Suggested level||Ch : 48 H. R. K.|
PAPER: B 50 Marks
THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS
|Kinetic theory of the ideal gas,
Work done on an ideal gas
|Review of previous concepts.|
|Internal energy of an ideal gas||To include the Equi-partition of energy.|
|Van der Waals equation of state.|
|Suggested level||Ch : 23 H. R. K.|
|Statistical, distribution and mean values||Mean free path and microscopic calculations of mean free path.|
|Distribution of molecular speeds
Distribution of energies
|Maxwell distribution; Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution; Internal energy of an ideal gas.|
|Brownian motion||Qualitative description. Diffusion, conduction and Viscosity|
|Suggested level:||Ch: 24 H.R.K.|
|Review of previous concepts.||first law of Thermodynamics& its applications|
|First law of thermodynamics,
Transfer of heat.
|cyclic and free expansion.|
|Suggested level:||Ch 25 H.R.K.|
ENTROPY AND SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNYMICS.
|Reversible and irreversible||Definition , discussion. Definition,|
|Process, second law.||Heat engine. Refrigerator and second law.|
|Cycle; Carnot engines.||Calculation of efficiency of heat engines.|
|Thermodynamics temperature scale||Absolute zero: negative temperature, (discussion)|
|Entropy ..||Entropy in reversible process
Entropy in irreversible process
Entropy and second law
Entropy and probability.
|Suggested level||Ch :26H.R.K.|
|Low temperature physics||liquification of gases : Joules – Thomason effect.|
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
Conductors and Insulators Vector form of Coulomb’s Law.
|(Review of Previous concepts) Coulomb’s law, law for point charges.
Quantization and conservation of charge. (Discussion)
|Suggested level||Ch : 27 H.R.K.|
|Field due to a point charge; due to several point charges, Electric dipole.|
|Electric field of continuous charge distribution.||e.g. Ring of charge; disc of charge; infinite line of charge.|
|Point Charge in an electric field
Dipole in an electric field
|Torque on and energy of a dipole in uniform field.|
|Gauss’s Law||Electric flux; Gauss’s law; (Integral and differential forms)|
|Applications of Gauss’s Law (Integral form)||Charged isolated conductors; conductor with a cavity, field near a charged conducting sheet. Field of an infinite line of charge; Field of an infinite sheet of charge. Field of spherical shell. Field of spherical charge distribution.|
|Suggested level:||Ch : 29 H.R.K.|
|ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL||Potential due to point charge. Potential due to collection of point charges. Potential due to dipole. Electric potential of continuous charge distribution. Equipotential surfaces.|
|Calculating the field from the potential||Field as the gradient or derivative of potential. Potential and field inside and outside an isolated conductor|
|Suggested level||Ch : 30 H. R. K.|
|Capacitors and dielectrics||Capacitance; calculating the electric field in a capacitor. Capacitors of various shapes, cylindrical, spherical etc. Energy stored in an electric field. Energy per unit volume.|
|Capacitor with dielectric||Electric field of dielectric
(1) An atomic view
(2) Application of Gauss’s Law to capacitor with dielectric.
|Suggested level||Ch: 31 H.R.K.|
|Electric current||Current density, Resistance, resistivity, conductivity (Microscopic & macroscopic view of resistivity)|
|Ohm’s Law||Basic definition. Analogy between current and heat flow. Microscopic view of Ohms Law.|
|Energy transfers in an electric circuit|
|Semiconductors, Super- conductors||Descriptive giving basic idea|
|Suggested level||Ch : 32 H.R.K.|
|Calculating the current in a single loop, multiple loops; voltages at various elements of a loop.||Use of Kirchoff’s 1st and 2nd Law.|
|RC circuits.||Growth and decay of charge/ current in an RC circuit. Analytical treatment.|
|Suggested Level||Ch 33 H.R.K|
MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS
|Magnetic Field, B.||Basic idea.|
|Magnetic force on a charged particle magnetic force on a current.||Recall the previous results. Do not derive.|
|Torque on a current loop Magnetic dipole||Define Energy of magnetic dipole in field. Discuss quantitatively|
|Biot-Savarts Law||Analytical treatment and applications to a current loop, force on two parallel current changing conductors.|
|Ampere’s Law||Integral and differential forms, applications to solenoids and Toroids. (Integral form)|
|Suggested Level||Ch : 35 H.R.K|
|FARADAY’S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
|Faraday’s Law||Magnetic Flux. Consequences of Faraday’s Law.|
|Lenz’s Law||Discussion, Eddy currents etc.|
|Motional E.M.F.||Quantitative analysis|
|Induced Electric fields||Calculation and applications|
|Suggested level||Ch 36 H.R.K|
|Magnetic Properties of Matter|
|Gauss’s Law for magnetism||Discussing and developing concepts of conservation of magnetic flux|
|Differential form of Gauss Law|
|Origin of Atomic and Nuclear magnetism||Basic ideas’ Bohr Magnetron|
|Magnetization||Defining M. B. u.|
|Magnetic Materials||Para magnetism, Diamagnetism, Ferromagnetism Discussion. Hysteresis in Ferromagnetic materials.|
|Suggested level||Ch 37 H.R.K|
|Inductance||Basic definition. Inductance of a Solenoid; Toroid.|
|LR Circuits||Growth and decay of current, analytical treatment.|
|Energy stored in magnetic field||Derive Energy density and the magnetic field|
|Electromagnetic Oscillation||Qualitative discussion
Quantitative analysis using differential equations (without considering damped and forced oscillations) Forced electromagnetic oscillations and resonance
|Suggested Level:||Ch 38 H.R.K|
|Alternating current CIRCUITS||AC current in resistive, inductive and capacitive elements.|
|Single loop RLC circuit||Analytical expression for time dependent solution Graphical analysis phase angles|
|Power in AC circuits||Power Phase angles RMS values power factor|
|Transformer||basic transformer equation|
|Suggested level:||Ch,39 R.H.K.|
|Summarizing the electromagnetic equations||Gauss’s law for electromagnetism; Faraday Law; Ampere’s law|
|Induced magnetic fields and .Displacement current||Development of concepts, applications.|
|Maxwell’s equations..||(integral & differential forms) discussion and implications.|
|Suggested level:||Ch:40: H.R.K|
|Generating an electromagnetic wave.|
|Traveling waves and Maxwell’s equations||Analytical treatment; obtaining differential form Maxwell’s equation obtaining the velocity of
Light from Maxwell’s equations.
|Energy transport and the Poynting vector..||Analytical treatment and discussion of physical concepts.|
|Suggested level:||Ch.41 H.R.K.|
Paper: C 50 Marks
|Semiconductor materials||Idea of energy bands and energy gaps (qualitative P-type, N-type material.|
|Junction diode||Structure, Characteristics and Application as rectifiers|
|Transistor||basic structure and operation|
|Transistor biasing..||Biasing for amplifiers; Characteristics of common base, Common emitter, Common collector, Load line, Operating point, Hybrid parameters.|
|Transistor as an amplifier||Common emitter mode.|
|Amplification with feedback oscillators.||Positive & negative feedback Oscillators. Multivibrators.|
|Logic Gates||OR, AND, NOT , NAND, NOR and their basic applications.|
|Suggested level||A-Level Physics by ROGER MUNCASTER, 2nd Edition.
Understanding Physics for Advance Level by JIM BREITHAUPT, Published
ISBN 0 09 1645816.
(Black body radiation)
|Stefan Boltzmann, Wien and Planck’s law….. Consequences.|
|The quantization of energy.||Quantum numbers; Correspondence principle.|
|. Einstein’s photon theory.||Explanation of photoelectric effect.|
|The Compton Effect||Analytical treatment.|
|Line Spectra||Quantitative discussion; Explanation using quantum theory.|
|Suggested level||Ch: 49 H.R.K.|
WAVE NATURE OF MATTER
|Wave behavior of particles||De Broglie hypothesis|
|Testing De Broglie’s hypothesis||Davisson-Germer Expt and explanation.|
|Waves, Waves Packets and Particles||Localizing a wave in space and time|
|Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle (HUP) HUP for momentum-position and Energy Time;||HUP applied to single slit diffraction|
|Wave Function||Definition, relation to probability of particle.|
|Schrödinger Equation.||To be presented without derivation, and applied to specific cases e.g. step potentials and free part particle, Barrier. Tunneling (basic idea).|
State and Energy Levels
|Trapped Particles and probability Densiti Barrier tunneling.||Particles in a well, Probability density using wave function of states. Discussion of Particle in a well.|
|The correspondence principles||Discussion.|
|Dual nature of matter
(waves and particles)
|Suggested level||Ch.50 H.R.K|
ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF HYDROGEN
|Bohr’s theory||Derivation and quantitative discussion; Frank Hertz experiment.
Energy levels of electrons; Atomic Spectrum.
|Angular Momentum of Electrons||(Vector atom model) orbital angular momentum; Space quantization, Orbital angular momentum & magnetism, Bohr’s magnetor|
|Electron Spin||Dipole in non-uniform field; Stern-Gerlach experiment, Experimental results.|
|X-ray Spectrum||Continuous and Discrete Spectrum- Explanation|
|X-ray & Atomic number||Moseley’s Law.|
|Development of periodic table||Pauli exclusion principle and its use in developing the periodic table.|
|Laser||Basic Concepts & Working of He-Ne Laser.|
|Suggested Level:||Ch.52 H.R.K|
|Discovering the nucleus||Review. Rutherford’s Experiment and interpretation.|
|Some Nuclear Properties||(a) Nuclear systematic (Mass No., Atomic No. Isotopes.
(b) Nuclear Force (Basic Ideas).
(c) Nuclear Radii.
(d) Nuclear Masses Binding Energies Mass defect.
(e) Nuclear Spin & Magnetism.
|Radioactive decay||Law of decay; half life, mean life.|
|Alpha decay||Basic ideas.|
|Beta decay||Basic ideas|
|Measuring ionizing radiation (Units)||Curie, Rad: etc.|
|Natural Radioactivity||Discussion, radioactive dating.|
|Nuclear Reactions||Basic ideas e.g. reaction energy, Q. Value, exothermic-endothermic.
(Some discussion of reaction energies in the contact of nuclear stationery states).
|Suggested Level||Ch. 54 H.R.K.|
.ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS
|Nuclear Fission||Basic process: Liquid drop model, description, Theory of N. Fission|
|Nuclear Reactors||Basic Principles.|
|Thermonuclear Fusion (T.N.F.)||Basic process; T.N.F. in stars.|
|Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion||Basic Ideas and requirements for a T.N. reactor.|
|Suggested Level;||Ch.54 H.R.K.|
PAPER:D 25 Marks
Note: The candidate must perform at least 50% of the practical of each sub section.
PROPERTIES OF MATTER
- Surface tension by capillary rise
- ‘g’ by compound pendulum
- Elastic constants of a wire by a spiral spring
- Modulus of rigidity of a wire by dynamic method
- Modulus of rigidity of a wire using Barton’s apparatus
- Modulus of rigidity of a wire using Maxwell’s needle
- Calibration of a thermo couple by a potentiometer
- Mechanical equivalent of heat by Calendar and Barne’s apparatus
- Frequency of A.C. using sonometer.
- Velocity of sound by Kundr’s tube.
- Vertical distance by a sextant
- Wavelength of sodium light by Newton’s rings
- Wavelength of sodium light by diffraction grating
- Wavelength of sodium light by Fresenel’s biprism
- Resolving power of a diffraction grating
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
- Measurement of high resistance and capacitance of a capacitor by neon bulb.
- I-H Curve by Magnetometer
- Conversion of a moving coil galvanometer into an ammeter.
- Conversion of a moving coil galvanometer into a voltmeter.
- Calibration of an ammeter by a potentiometer.
- Calibration of a voltmeter by a potentiometer.
- Low resistance by Carey Foster Bridge.
- Charge sensitivity of a ballistic galvanometer
- Comparison of capacities by ballistic galvanometer
- Measurement of magnetic flux by a search coil
PAPER:E 25 Marks
Note: The candidate must perform at least 50% of the practical of each sub section.
- Work function of metal using sodium light.
- Determine Plank’s constant ‘h’ by cut-off method using a photo Cell.
- Measurement of Planck’s constant using a spectrometer.
- Determination of e/m of electron by deflection method.
- Determination of ionization potential of Mercury.
- To study the characteristics of an acceptor circuit.
- To study the characteristics of a rejecter circuit.
- Characteristic curves of a Geiger-Muller tube.
- To determine the Dead time of a Geiger-Muller tube.
- Absorption co-efficient of beta-particles using a Geiger counter.
- Stopping power for alpha particles.
- Range of alpha particles.
- Characteristics of a semi-conductor diode
- Setting up half and full-wave-rectifier.
- To study the input and output static characteristics of a PNP transistor.
- To study the input and output static characteristics of a NPN transistor.
- Transistor as a single stage amplifier and its voltage gain.
- Transistor as an oscillator.